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IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two basic types, letters and diacritics. Occasionally letters or diacritics are added, removed or modified by the International Phonetic Association.
As of the most recent change in ,  there are segmental letters, an indefinitely large number of suprasegmental letters, 44 diacritics not counting composites and four extra-lexical prosodic marks in the IPA.
Since its creation, the IPA has undergone a number of revisions. After revisions and expansions from the s to the s, the IPA remained primarily unchanged until the Kiel Convention in A minor revision took place in with the addition of four letters for mid central vowels  and the removal of letters for voiceless implosives.
Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet for speech pathology were created in and officially adopted by the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association in The general principle of the IPA is to provide one letter for each distinctive sound speech segment , although this practice is not followed if the sound itself is complex.
The alphabet is designed for transcribing sounds phones , not phonemes , though it is used for phonemic transcription as well. When the IPA is used for phonemic transcription, the letter—sound correspondence can be rather loose.
Among the symbols of the IPA, letters represent consonants and vowels , 31 diacritics are used to modify these, and 19 additional signs indicate suprasegmental qualities such as length , tone , stress , and intonation.
The letters chosen for the IPA are meant to harmonize with the Latin alphabet. Full capital letters are not used as IPA symbols. They are, however, often used in conjunction with the IPA in two cases:.
Wildcards are commonly used in phonology to summarize syllable or word shapes, or to show the evolution of classes of sounds. In speech pathology, capital letters represent indeterminate sounds, and may be superscripted to indicate they are weakly articulated: e.
They may also take diacritics that indicate what kind of voice quality an utterance has, and may be used to extract a suprasegmental feature that occurs on all susceptible segments in a stretch of IPA.
See Suprasegmentals below for some conventions. The International Phonetic Alphabet is based on the Latin alphabet, using as few non-Latin forms as possible.
This inventory was extended by using small-capital and cursive forms, diacritics and rotation. There are also several symbols derived or taken from the Greek alphabet, though the sound values may differ.
The sound values of modified Latin letters can often be derived from those of the original letters. Apart from the fact that certain kinds of modification to the shape of a letter generally correspond to certain kinds of modification to the sound represented, there is no way to deduce the sound represented by a symbol from its shape as for example in Visible Speech nor even any systematic relation between signs and the sounds they represent as in Hangul.
Beyond the letters themselves, there are a variety of secondary symbols which aid in transcription. Diacritic marks can be combined with IPA letters to transcribe modified phonetic values or secondary articulations.
There are also special symbols for suprasegmental features such as stress and tone that are often employed. There are two principal types of brackets used to set off delimit IPA transcriptions:.
All three of the above are provided by the IPA Handbook. The following are not, but may be seen in IPA transcription:. IPA letters have cursive forms designed for use in manuscripts and when taking field notes, but the Handbook of the International Phonetic Association recommended against their use, as cursive IPA is "harder for most people to decipher.
The International Phonetic Alphabet is occasionally modified by the Association. After each modification, the Association provides an updated simplified presentation of the alphabet in the form of a chart.
See History of the IPA. Not all aspects of the alphabet can be accommodated in a chart of the size published by the IPA.
The alveolo-palatal and epiglottal consonants, for example, are not included in the consonant chart for reasons of space rather than of theory two additional columns would be required, one between the retroflex and palatal columns and the other between the pharyngeal and glottal columns , and the lateral flap would require an additional row for that single consonant, so they are listed instead under the catchall block of "other symbols".
The procedure for modifying the alphabet or the chart is to propose the change in the Journal of the IPA. See, for example, August on an open central unrounded vowel and August on central approximants.
Only changes to the alphabet or chart that have been approved by the Council can be considered part of the official IPA.
Nonetheless, many users of the alphabet, including the leadership of the Association itself, deviate from the official system.
Of more than IPA symbols, relatively few will be used to transcribe speech in any one language, with various levels of precision.
A precise phonetic transcription, in which sounds are specified in detail, is known as a narrow transcription. A coarser transcription with less detail is called a broad transcription.
Both are relative terms, and both are generally enclosed in square brackets. The choice of IPA letters may reflect theoretical claims of how speakers conceptualize sounds as phonemes, or they may be merely a convenience for typesetting.
Phonemic approximations between slashes do not have absolute sound values. IPA is popular for transcription by linguists. Some American linguists, however, use a mix of IPA with Americanist phonetic notation or use some nonstandard symbols for various reasons.
Some language study programs use the IPA to teach pronunciation. For example, in Russia and earlier in the Soviet Union and mainland China , textbooks for children  and adults  for studying English and French consistently use the IPA.
English teachers and textbooks in Taiwan tend to use the Kenyon and Knott system, a slight typographical variant of the IPA first used in the Pronouncing Dictionary of American English.
Many British dictionaries, including the Oxford English Dictionary and some learner's dictionaries such as the Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary and the Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary , now use the International Phonetic Alphabet to represent the pronunciation of words.
The IPA is also not universal among dictionaries in languages other than English. Monolingual dictionaries of languages with generally phonemic orthographies generally do not bother with indicating the pronunciation of most words, and tend to use respelling systems for words with unexpected pronunciations.
Dictionaries produced in Israel use the IPA rarely and sometimes use the Hebrew alphabet for transcription of foreign words.
Mass-market bilingual Czech dictionaries, for instance, tend to use the IPA only for sounds not found in the Czech language.
IPA letters have been incorporated into the alphabets of various languages, notably via the Africa Alphabet in many sub-Saharan languages such as Hausa , Fula , Akan , Gbe languages , Manding languages , Lingala , etc.
This has created the need for capital variants. These, and others, are supported by Unicode , but appear in Latin ranges other than the IPA extensions.
In the IPA itself, however, only lower-case letters are used. IPA has widespread use among classical singers during preparation as they are frequently required to sing in a variety of foreign languages, in addition to being taught by vocal coach in order to perfect the diction of their students and to globally improve tone quality and tuning.
The International Phonetic Association organizes the letters of the IPA into three categories: pulmonic consonants, non-pulmonic consonants, and vowels.
Pulmonic consonant letters are arranged singly or in pairs of voiceless tenuis and voiced sounds, with these then grouped in columns from front labial sounds on the left to back glottal sounds on the right.
In official publications by the IPA, two columns are omitted to save space, with the letters listed among 'other symbols',  and with the remaining consonants arranged in rows from full closure occlusives: stops and nasals , to brief closure vibrants: trills and taps , to partial closure fricatives and minimal closure approximants , again with a row left out to save space.
Shaded cells represent articulations that are judged to be impossible. Vowel letters are also grouped in pairs—of unrounded and rounded vowel sounds—with these pairs also arranged from front on the left to back on the right, and from maximal closure at top to minimal closure at bottom.
No vowel letters are omitted from the chart, though in the past some of the mid central vowels were listed among the 'other symbols'.
The categories of sounds are assigned different ranges of numbers. A pulmonic consonant is a consonant made by obstructing the glottis the space between the vocal cords or oral cavity the mouth and either simultaneously or subsequently letting out air from the lungs.
Pulmonic consonants make up the majority of consonants in the IPA, as well as in human language. All consonants in the English language fall into this category.
The pulmonic consonant table, which includes most consonants, is arranged in rows that designate manner of articulation , meaning how the consonant is produced, and columns that designate place of articulation , meaning where in the vocal tract the consonant is produced.
The main chart includes only consonants with a single place of articulation. Non-pulmonic consonants are sounds whose airflow is not dependent on the lungs.
These include clicks found in the Khoisan languages and some neighboring Bantu languages of Africa , implosives found in languages such as Sindhi , Hausa , Swahili and Vietnamese , and ejectives found in many Amerindian and Caucasian languages.
Affricates and co-articulated stops are represented by two letters joined by a tie bar, either above or below the letters. Co-articulated consonants are sounds that involve two simultaneous places of articulation are pronounced using two parts of the vocal tract.
In English, the [w] in "went" is a coarticulated consonant, being pronounced by rounding the lips and raising the back of the tongue. In some languages, plosives can be double-articulated, for example in the name of Laurent Gbagbo.
The IPA defines a vowel as a sound which occurs at a syllable center. The IPA maps the vowels according to the position of the tongue.
The vertical axis of the chart is mapped by vowel height. Vowels pronounced with the tongue lowered are at the bottom, and vowels pronounced with the tongue raised are at the top.
In a similar fashion, the horizontal axis of the chart is determined by vowel backness. In places where vowels are paired, the right represents a rounded vowel in which the lips are rounded while the left is its unrounded counterpart.
Diacritics are used for phonetic detail. They are added to IPA letters to indicate a modification or specification of that letter's normal pronunciation.
By being made superscript, any IPA letter may function as a diacritic, conferring elements of its articulation to the base letter.
See secondary articulation for a list of superscript IPA letters supported by Unicode. Superscript diacritics placed after a letter are ambiguous between simultaneous modification of the sound and phonetic detail at the end of the sound.
The state of the glottis can be finely transcribed with diacritics. A series of alveolar plosives ranging from an open to a closed glottis phonation are:.
Additional diacritics are provided by the Extensions to the IPA for speech pathology. These symbols describe the features of a language above the level of individual consonants and vowels, that is, at the level of syllable, word or phrase.
These include prosody , pitch, length , stress , intensity, tone and gemination of the sounds of a language, as well as the rhythm and intonation of speech.
Under Capital letters above we saw how a carrier letter may be used to indicate suprasegmental features such as labialization or nasalization. Some authors omit the carrier letter, for e.
The tags 'minor' and 'major' are intentionally ambiguous. Depending on need, 'minor' may vary from a foot break to a break in list-intonation to a continuing—prosodic-unit boundary equivalent to a comma , and while 'major' is often any intonation break, it may be restricted to a final—prosodic-unit boundary equivalent to a period.
However, the 'upstep' could also be used for pitch reset , and the IPA Handbook illustration for Portuguese uses it for prosody in a non-tonal language.
Phonetic pitch and phonemic tone may be indicated by either diacritics placed over the nucleus of the syllable or by Chao tone letters placed before or after the word or syllable.
There are three graphic variants of the tone letters: with or without a stave the latter obsolete , and facing left or facing right from a stave.
Theoretically therefore prosodic pitch and lexical tone could be simultaneously transcribed in a single text, though this is not a formalized distinction.
Only six combinations of two diacritics are supported, and only across three levels high, mid, low , despite the diacritics supporting five levels of pitch in isolation.
There are 20 such possibilities. With this restriction, there are 8 possibilities. The correspondence between tone diacritics and tone letters therefore breaks down once they start combining.
Although only 10 peaking and dipping tones were proposed in Chao's original, limited set of tone letters, phoneticians often make finer distinctions, and indeed an example is found on the IPA Chart.
More complex contours are possible. The staveless letters are effectively obsolete and are not supported by Unicode.
They were not widely accepted even before when they were the sole option for indicating pitch in the IPA, and they only ever supported three pitch levels and a few contours.
IPA diacritics may be doubled to indicate an extra degree of the feature indicated. Note that transcription marks are similar: double slashes indicate extra morpho -phonemic, double square brackets especially precise, and double parentheses especially unintelligible.
For example, the stress mark may be doubled to indicate an extra degree of stress, such as prosodic stress in English. Length is commonly extended by repeating the length mark, as in English shhh!
Normally additional degrees of length are handled by the extra-short or half-long diacritic, but the first two words in each of the Estonian examples are analyzed as simply short and long, requiring a different remedy for the final words.
The IPA once had parallel symbols from alternative proposals, but in most cases eventually settled on one for each sound.
The rejected symbols are now considered obsolete. This is especially common with:. At the Kiel Convention in , a group of linguists drew up the initial extensions,  which were based on the previous work of the PRDS Phonetic Representation of Disordered Speech Group in the early s.
In addition to the Extensions to the IPA for disordered speech, there are the conventions of the Voice Quality Symbols , which include a number of symbols for additional airstream mechanisms and secondary articulations in which they call "voice quality".
The blank cells on the IPA chart can be filled without too much difficulty if the need arises. Representations of consonant sounds outside of the core set are created by adding diacritics to letters with similar sound values.
A few languages such as Banda have a bilabial flap as the preferred allophone of what is elsewhere a labiodental flap. Other taps can be written as extra-short plosives or laterals, e.
The vowels are similarly manageable by using diacritics for raising, lowering, fronting, backing, centering, and mid-centering.
An IPA symbol is often distinguished from the sound it is intended to represent, since there is not necessarily a one-to-one correspondence between letter and sound in broad transcription, making articulatory descriptions such as "mid front rounded vowel" or "voiced velar stop" unreliable.
While the Handbook of the International Phonetic Association states that no official names exist for its symbols, it admits the presence of one or two common names for each.
In some cases, the Unicode names and the IPA names do not agree. The traditional names of the Latin and Greek letters are usually used for unmodified letters.
For diacritics, there are two methods of naming. IPA typeface support is increasing, and nearly complete IPA support with good diacritic rendering is provided by a few typefaces that come pre-installed with various computer operating systems , such as Calibri , as well as some freely available but commercial fonts such as Brill , but most pre-installed fonts, such as the ubiquitous Arial , Noto Sans and Times New Roman , are neither complete nor render many diacritics properly.
Typefaces that provide full IPA support, properly render diacritics and are freely available include:. Web browsers generally do not need any configuration to display IPA characters, provided that a typeface capable of doing so is available to the operating system.
The usage of mapping systems in on-line text has to some extent been adopted in the context input methods, allowing convenient keying of IPA characters that would be otherwise unavailable on standard keyboard layouts.
Symbols to the right in a cell are voiced , to the left are voiceless. Shaded areas denote articulations judged impossible.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Alphabetic system of phonetic notation. Alphabet — partially featural. Main article: History of the International Phonetic Alphabet.
See morphophonology for examples. Main article: Cursive forms of the International Phonetic Alphabet. Further information: Phonetic transcription.
Main article: Case variants of IPA letters. See also: International Phonetic Alphabet chart. Main article: Consonant. See also: IPA pulmonic consonant chart with audio.
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